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what is angina pectoris -  Angina Symptoms, causes And angina attack what to do?

what is angina pectoris - Angina Symptoms, causes And angina attack what to do?



What is angina?


Angina refers to chest pain (angina chest pain) caused by a decrease in blood flow to the heart. Coronary artery disease causes angina (an-JIE-nuh or AN-juh-nuh).

Often described as squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness, or pain in your chest, angina is also known as angina pectoris.


According to some people with angina symptoms, it feels like a vise is squeezing their chest or as if a heavyweight is hanging over their shoulders. In some cases, angina may be a new pain that needs to be checked by a doctor, or it may be a recurring pain that goes away with treatment.


Although angina is relatively common, it can still be difficult to distinguish it from other types of chest pain, such as indigestion. If you have unexplained chest pain, seek medical attention right away.



angina symptoms


Chest pain and discomfort are commonly described as pressure, squeezing, burning, or fullness.


Additionally, you may experience pain in your arms, neck, jaw, shoulder, or back.

You may also experience the following symptoms with angina:


  • Feeling dizzy
  • Tired
  • Nauseous
  • Short of breath
  • Sweaty


Your symptoms should be evaluated immediately by a doctor who can determine if you have stable angina or unstable angina, which can be a precursor to a heart attack.


The most common form of angina is stable angina. It usually occurs when you exert yourself and disappears when you rest. Pain that comes on when you're walking uphill or in cold weather may be angina.



what causes angina?


Angina indicates an underlying heart problem, such as:


  • CAD (coronary artery disease). This is the leading cause of angina in both men and women. Plaques build up in the arteries that carry blood to the heart, causing it. Atherosclerosis causes the arteries to narrow or harden, reducing blood flow to the heart. This leads to myocardial ischemia. It puts people at risk of a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

  • MVD (coronary microvascular disease). Women are more likely than men to suffer from angina from MVD. The walls and lining of tiny blood vessels that branch off coronary arteries are damaged in this condition. It causes coronary spasms by reducing blood flow to the heart.

  • A coronary spasm. During a coronary spasm, the coronary arteries repeatedly constrict (tighten) and then open. This temporarily restricts blood flow to the heart. Coronary spasms can occur without coronary artery disease. Large or small coronary arteries can be affected.


what does angina feel like?


Most people with angina report having chest pain and pressure. Or they may report a squeezing sensation in the chest.


The sensations may last for a few minutes before disappearing. They may get worse when you climb stairs, exercise, or feel stressed. When you stop exercising or manage stress, your symptoms may improve. Moreover, angina may also manifest as exertional shortness of breath, abdominal discomfort, fatigue, or in other ways in individuals without the "typical" chest discomfort.


In addition to angina, you may also experience:

  • Pain in the abdomen.
  • Sweating excessively.
  • Indigestion or gas.
  • Tiredness.
  • Vomiting and nausea.
  • Neck, jaw, shoulder, or back pain.
  • Dyspnea (shortness of breath).


What types of angina are there?


Angina can take many forms depending on its underlying cause. Examples include:


  • Angina stable. This is the most common type. It is consistent for at least two months. Stress or physical exertion are usually the triggers. This type of angina is usually predictable. It usually improves when you're resting or relaxed. Angina can progress to unstable angina, which is unpredictable.

  • Unstable angina: Often, this type occurs when you're resting. A blood clot in an artery often causes this. Heart attacks are often preceded by unstable angina. This is a medical emergency.

  • Microvascular angina: MVD, which affects the smallest coronary artery blood vessels, is often associated with microvascular angina. It can occur during daily activities or during periods of stress. Angina pain usually lasts longer than other types of angina. You may feel pain for 10 to 30 minutes.

  • Variant angina (Prinzmetal): It is caused by coronary spasms. Approximately two out of every 100 cases of angina are caused by coronary spasms. Spasms and angina are more likely to occur at night and follow a pattern. Spasms can be caused by substance abuse, smoking, cold weather, certain medications, and stress. Younger people are more likely to experience this type of angina.



How is angina diagnosed? or during an angina attack what to do?


Unstable angina is an urgency. You should call 911 if you believe you’re having a heart attack.


Any other type of chest pain should be reported to your healthcare provider. Your provider may order one or more of these tests after performing a physical examination to determine the cause of angina:


  • CBC (complete blood count).
  • X-rays of the chest.
  • Stress test for the heart.
  • Electrocardiogram.
  • An electrocardiogram (EKG).
  • Angiography and cardiac catheterization.
  • Coronary computed tomography angiogram.


MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT


How is angina treated?


Your healthcare provider will manage the heart condition, which should ease angina. To improve blood flow to the heart, you may need Coronary angioplasty and stenting (also called percutaneous coronary intervention or PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. 


There may be patients who do not require either of these and medication alone is sufficient. Your final treatment will be determined by your symptoms as well as the results of testing.


Some people still suffer from angina despite treatment. You may be prescribed a medication to open your blood vessels quickly (vasodilators) when you have pain. A common angina medication is a nitroglycerin.


Angina can also be treated with:

  • Anticlotting (antiplatelet) drugs.
  • Drugs that lower cholesterol.
  • Blood pressure medications.


PREVENTION


How can I prevent angina?


Many of the conditions that cause angina can be prevented. You can improve your heart health by following these steps:


  • Every week, you should engage in some form of physical activity for at least 150 minutes (2.5 hours).
  • Maintain a heart-healthy diet.
  • Find healthy ways to manage stress, such as meditation, yoga, or talking to a friend.
  • Lose weight, if necessary, and maintain a healthy weight.
  • Take care of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.
  • Stop smoking and seek help for substance abuse.



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